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Problems of Forensic Sciences 2004  Vol. 59 (LIX)  127-142
 
FENTANYL AND ITS ANALOGUES IN THE FORENSIC LABORATORY. MEDICAL AND ANALYTICAL PROBLEMS

Agnieszka SKULSKA1, Maria KAŁA2, Andrzej PARCZEWSKI1,2
1Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Cracow
2Institute of Forensic Research, Cracow


Streszczenie

Fentanyl and its analogues are commonly known as synthetic opiates. Fentanyl was synthesised in Belgium in the late 1950’s and was introduced into medical practice in 1963. This compound has 75 to 125 times more analgesic potency than morphine. Thereafter, other fentanyl analogues were introduced: sufentanyl, which is about 5–10 times as potent as fentanyl, alfentanyl – an ultra-short acting analgesic, remifentanyl, which is used widely for short-term anaesthesia. The biological effects of fentanyls are indistinguishable from those of heroin. Therefore this group of compounds is very attractive to clandestine manufacturers. The first illicit use of fentanyl and its analogues occurred in the mid-1970s. Fentanyl-related compounds are highly potent synthetic narcotic analgesics. Because of the high potency of fentanyls, low doses are used. The low doses lead to very low concentrations of these substances and their metabolites in biological material. Hence, their determination appears very difficult. In consequence, very sensitive techniques are applied to determine fentanyl analogues at nanograms concentrations in a complex biological matrix.


Słowa kluczowe

Reviews; Fentanyl and its analogues; Medical and nonmedical use; Methods of determination.


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